Friday, July 1, 2016

An Evening With Eva Part 2

I woke up with a banging headache. My stomach churned and my throat was dry. I was very thirsty. I squinted, trying to adjust to the brightness of the room. I was sitting on a wooden chair, my hands tied at my back. It was a tiny room. The only piece of furniture was the one I was seated on. My shoes had been removed. I raised my head and looked around. There was a pile of plywood to my left. A water dispenser was by the iron door. There was a tiny bed to my far right which could only take one person comfortably. Damn, I was hungry. I tried to recollect what happened and how I got here. It was all fuzzy. I tasted the dry blood on the cut on my swollen lower lip. I silently cursed the Macho man who hit me.


I had to get out of here. With the tip of my fingers, I felt the tape used to tie my hands. Masking tape. I looked around for any shred of metal I could use to loosen myself. None. I tried to force the masking tape off me by pulling my hands apart. I groaned and struggled. It did not come off. The 100 watt bulb was blinding my eyes. There were no windows and the fan was blowing at a very irritating low rate, making funny noises. Tiny drops of sweat formed on my forehead.


What time was it? Where was I? Was this where I was going to die? Is this the slaughter house? All these questions ran through my head in milliseconds. I started crying. I was weak, hungry and afraid. I was not going to die here I told myself. I looked round the tiny room again. This time I looked very slowly and very carefully. As I looked past the door, something shiny caught my eyes. There was a part of the door which had a little protrusion. It looked sharp. It was very small, like a design of some sort. This could work I told myself. I had watched The Avengers where Black Widow was held captive in a similar situation when a call came through to her. Her deft mastery of martial arts helped her escape and defeat her captors. I wished I knew martial arts. I prayed quickly and silently. And I lifted myself up with the chair. The wooden chair was not heavy after all! I hopped and hopped and hopped. Finally, I got to the position of the shrapnel looking protrusion on the door and turned my back against it. I tried to locate the shrapnel by trying to feel the door, my hands still tied behind the chair.


“Fvck!” I cursed. The shrapnel cut my finger. I felt the warm fluid trickle out. I wanted to suck it to stop the bleeding. I could not. I continued, trying to trace the shrapnel and get it to where I could successfully pierce the tape. I found it. I tried to pierce the masking tape with the shrapnel.


“Ahhhh..Fvck! God!” I cried as the shrapnel cut my palm. I could feel blood oozing out. I smiled. The masking tape was loose. I quickly freed my hands from the chair and got up. My palm was hurting. I cut some foam from the bed on the floor and tried to clean the blood. I cut more foam and cleaned the drops of blood on the floor too. I scrutinized the area to see if any changes could be easily noticed. It was not.

I bent my neck at the dispenser and opened the tap. The taste of cold water was soothing. I had my fill and let out a loud belch. I saw the bed and a huge desire to just lie down on it came over me. But a lot of work was yet to be done. And if I was found unbound and on the bed, the next restraint they would put on me would not be a masking tape. I carried the wooden chair back to the exact spot it was kept initially and sat on in. I paced the room, deep in thought and trying to work out a plan. I can’t die now, I told myself, shaking my head. I was just 27. In my prime. I meant so much to my mum. My girlfriend would break down if anything happened to me. The office would freeze for at least a week before they could get themselves back up. I had to do somwthing. But what? I put my head on the dispenser bottle and tears trickled down my eyes. I prayed to God to forgive me my sins and that I would dedicate my life to him if I ever got out of this alive. My nose ran. I dragged it in.

Just then I heard footsteps. And then the footsteps got closer. Designer shoes. Maybe cowboy boots. It could also be a woman in high heels. But from the sounds I heard, I knew that there was a corridor of some sort outside this door, which was either tiled or very smooth. I made to resume my prayers on the dispenser when I heard the jangle of a bunch of keys and a key go into the lock. I immediately rushed to the chair, sat down and put my hands behind the chair, in the position I was left making sure I didn’t make a sound. The Iron door opened and someone stepped in, closing it behind him. The door made a soft thud when it closed. I kept my head low, my heart was pounding so hard in my chest I was afraid he would hear it. There was a moment of silence. I could feel his eyes all over me, trying to survey me. He kicked my legs gently. He kicked again. Then he came closer.

“Hey” He said tapping my chin. I kept mute.

“Hey! Boy!” He said louder, this time tapping my chin a bit harder twice and lifting my face up.

I pretended to be waking from sleep. I opened my eyes slowly. It was Macho man. My heart beat faster. This brute of a man was so merciless. I still remembered the ringing slap he gave me hours ago. I groaned.

“We are leaving” He said.

I dropped my head again as if I was fainting. He stooped to look at me, a certain worry in his eyes. That was his mistake.

I don’t know where I got the courage or the idea. I felt this sudden rush of adrenaline and I was not even thinking about my actions. Even I could not believe it. As he stooped to look at me, I freed my hands from the back of the chair and gave him two heavy slaps on each eye. I put all the power and force I could get into the slaps. I was afraid I had blinded him. He screamed and held his face. I pushed the chair back and landed a huge kick to his ball5. He fell on the ground gasping for air. I made for the door but he held my leg. I turned and kicked his hand with all the might I could muster. He was still gasping for air. I got to the door, turned the handle and bolted. The corridor was long, with doors left and right. The floor was tiled and clean. It looked like an apartment in progress that was nearing completion. I got to the end of the corridor and opened the door. The Toyota Camry that picked me was parked neatly inside the compound. It was not a very huge compound. The floor was interlocked with bricks. I dashed to the gate, got out and continued to run. I had no idea where I was going.

I was on a small pathway that could barely take two cars. There were bushed all around. No trace of civilization. I looked farther ahead. Nothing. Just a lonely pathway with bushes everywhere. I was getting tired. I had been running for a while. I had no phone. My wallet was still with me, but it was of no use. I looked behind me a few times, trying to see if Macho man was coming after me. No sound of a car or anything of the sort. I stopped to catch my breath. After a while I began walking slowly, tired and hungry. I was fatigued. I sat down on the floor beside the road, praying to get help. I began to cry again.

I hear d the sound of a car coming from the direction I was heading. I quickly stood up and listened. It was approaching me now. Any help would do at this point. I flagged down the car but it ewent past me. It got a few meters away from me, then reversed. I thanked God.

It stopped beside me and the driver’s window wound down. It was a woman. Thank heavens.

“Please ma’am. I would be extremely indebted to you if you could please give me a ride anywhere out of here. If I can get a bus anywhere, I would be very grateful.” I begged.

She looked at me as if assessing me and deciding whether to give me a lift or not. When it seemed like she was going to zoom off, I begged her with tears falling from my eyes.

“Please ma. I mean you no harm. Please” I begged.

“What happened to you? What are you doing here? And why are you looking so tattered?” she asked.

“It’s quite a story ma.” I replied, my tears refusing to stop.

My tears seemed to give her a change of heart. She nodded her head to the side of the passenger seat.

“Come in.” she said.

She opened the door and I got in. The refreshing AC, the comfort of the leather seat and the safety in the hands of a good Samaritan were all welcome developments. We drove at some speed and when we passed the house I was held captive in, I glanced and looked inside. The Camry was still there. I was relieved. I relaxed.

“So what is your name?” the good Samaritan asked me after an eternity of silence. She spoke very good English. Gold earrings, gold bracelets and a gold necklace. She smelled of class. What did I expect? She was driving a Honda Civic 2012.

“My name is Sean ma.” I replied.

“Nice. I am Sophia.”

She felt good to be at the CEOs’ Awards dinner. Her boyfriend was Regional Manager at one of the top banks in the country and she felt so happy to be privileged to be a part of the event. There were a lot of distinguished personalities from 12 different countries around the world. It was a dinner that admitted people strictly by invitation. She knew she looked stunning. Why wouldn’t she be? She had been preparing for weeks. Kunle had told her a month ago about the very huge dinner and award night and that she would be going as his partner. She had carefully searched the internet and viewed catalogue after catalogue of dinner gowns. She saw a design she liked on a show on Dstv and had her designer make something gorgeous for her. From the moment she walked into the hall in Oriental Hotels Lekki, she felt all eyes on her. Kunle beamed a wide smile. He looked handsome in his Tuxedo as he strolled to his designated seat, hand in hand with his adorable girlfriend. He knew she was stunning. This could get him a raise, a recommendation or best of all a promotion.


She was dark skinned and very beautiful. She measured 5ft. 7inches without the heels. Now donning a 3-inch heeled shoe, she was almost the same height as Kunle. They had been dating for almost 7 months and already looked the couple. She was busty and a little chubby with an as5 that made heads turn, both male and female alike. Kunle was in his mid30’s. Already climbing the ladder of successful banking business, he had very little worries. He saw this as an opportunity to invest, market, show his class and get to meet his superiors whose only contact with him had been via emails. He also hoped he would have the courage to proceed with his plan. He wanted to propose. For her it was a night of pictures for updates on instagram and bbm. It was a night to flaunt her beauty and her body. It was a night to make her boyfriend very proud. She knew it was a long shot, but she did not mind being whisked away by one of the money bags present. She was amazed at the caliber of people she saw. She knew it was a big night. She did not envisage that it would be this big. He followed her to her seat, pushed back her chair, waited for her to settle in and helped her tuck in before going to his seat opposite her. The table already decorated with assorted wines and drinks had his name and designation already written boldly on a fancy looking cardboard: MR KUNLE BALOGUN – REGIONAL MANAGER SOUTH WEST NIGERIA. They were seated in the middle of the hall, close enough to see the activities happening on stage. She smiled at him. He smiled back and held her hand across the table. She was so happy to mean this much to him to be brought here. He wanted so much to pop the question to her right there and then. He felt the ring casing in his pant pocket.

“Soon,” he said to himself tapping the pocket with his free hand.

Outside Oriental Hotel, the venue of the party was a parked dark Nissan Armanda jeep. Shina was in front in the passenger seat. There was a white earphone in his left ear which he held in place with his left hand. Iyke and Francis were at the back smoking white London. Francis wound down his side of the glass and threw away the butt of his finished cigarette. He wound up and closed his eyes. Iyke hit him playfully with his elbow. He dipped his hand into the insides of his faded brown leather jacket and brought out a silenced .45 revolver. He smiled wickedly as he brandished it before Francis.

“Baba, relax. As long as this baby dey here, no shaking.” Iyke boasted.

“Shhhh!!!!” Shina said from the front suddenly looking sharp and continued. “Brenda is going in.” he finished.

All three men were suddenly very sharp and alert. The two at the back were looking at Shina and watching his facial reaction. If he felt or heard anything he did not show it. He was the best at masking how he felt, no matter how good or bad. That was why The Ghosts hired him.
Inside, an announcement was made for everyone to order appetizers. Kunle and his girlfriend picked up the menu in front of them and chose their appetizers. There was an attendant for every table. When they had made their decision, Kunle signaled the waitress. When she was close to them, he looked at her name tag. BRENDA

“Brenda, could you please get item 17 for my beautiful princess and item 3 for me?” Kunle asked smiling.

“Fantastic choice sir” she said scribbling on her pad. “I’ll be just a minute please.” She finished and left.

She got into the kitchen area and presented the piece of paper where she had written the couple’s order to the chef. She quickly went to the side of the room and whispered into the collar of her suit.

“I’m going in.”

Three minutes later Brenda came back with a tray containing the ordered meal. She placed Kunle’s in front of him and then the girl’s. She opened the red wine and poured two wine glasses half full. She straightened up.

“Is there anything else you may need sir?” she asked smiling at both Kunle and his girlfriend.

“No, thank you Brenda.” Kunle replied.

“Your fiancée is really beautiful sir. Lovely gown too.” Brenda said smiling wider.

“Oh yes she is. Eva is the queen of my heart.” Kunle said.

“Have a good evening sir and ma’am. And please feel free to call me if there is anything I can get you.” Brenda finished.

“Thank you Brenda.” Eva said.

As Brenda made to turn around, she deliberately used the tray to hit the wine bottle such that it spilled on Eva’s dress. She made it look like an accident. She had rehearsed this move for days. She was a pro. A few eyes turned to look at their direction. But the gazes did not last for long.

“Oh my God! I am so sorry. Please forgive me. Please, let me get u a napkin.” Brenda said begging and apologizing as the liquid made a little stain on her dress.

Eva looked horrified. Kunle was worried but calm. She quickly composed herself and accessed the damage. It was not much. Nothing a little dab could not clean up. She asked for the rest room. Brenda pointed at the ladies, apologizing as she directed. As Eva got up, Kunle tried to get up too but she gave him the “I’ll be fine my love” look.

“Please excuse me baby, I will be right back.” She said to Kunle smiling.

Brenda led the way as they took a door to their left, went behind the hall and entered a corridor to the rest room. Just about the same time, a fair skinned lady with glasses got up from her chair in the hall, kissed her boyfriend lightly on the cheeks and headed in the same direction as Eva. As she stepped out of the hall, she tapped her collar and spoke softly into the collar,

“I’m making my move.” She walked towards the ladies.

Brenda was still begging Eva. Eva was getting irritated and asked her to leave, saying that it was okay. She could handle herself, she told Brenda. Brenda apologized again and left the bathroom. As she left she passed by the fair skinned lady in glasses and winked at her. The lady in glasses just nodded. She did not smile back.

The bathroom was deserted, just Eva.

The lady in glasses took out a glass container and sprayed the contents on her handkerchief.

She opened the bathroom door and went in.

IF YOU ENJOYED THIS STORY AND YOU WANT ME TO CONTINUE JUST TYPE "Continue It" Below

Must Read: An Evening With Eva Part 1






















It was a beautiful Friday evening. Time: 7pm. The streets of Ikorodu were busy as usual, different kinds of people. The conductors were shouting at the top of their voices trying to outdo each other in the clamor for passengers. People hurrying in opposite directions. Many were corporately dressed trying to catch the next available bus to their final destinations, after a hard day’s job. Agric Bus Stop arguably boasted of one of the highest number of people that lived in Ikorodu. A market woman screamed at a man who was half running to catch a bus that had just one more seat left, and in the process, scattered some of her fresh peppers on the ground.


“Oloshi..Oloriburuku…Weyrey!!!” she screamed obscenities at the man at the top of her lungs. The culprit was already in the bus. If he heard the curses rained on him, he didn’t show it. I smiled wryly, bent and began helping the woman pick the pepper scattered on the floor. I washed my hands with the water she provided and continued on my way home. I was feeling particularly happy though. I had just experienced a wonderful time in the arms of my heartthrob. I called in sick from work and had spent the past 5hours with her. She was going to be away for quite a while, studying for her Masters in Canada. I had a quick flash back in my subconscious. The smile grew wider.


I crossed to the other side of the road. I needed to take a “keke napep” to the entrance of my street. I still had a little bit of distance to cover so I increased my pace. I wondered why there were so much people in this part of Lagos. It is the outskirts of the commercial center of the city and yet it was a host to a lot of new tenants every day. I dreamt of one day owning plots of land in Banana Island, having properties on Queens Drive Ikoyi or even a big Hotel in Lekki. Not this dumpster I had to hide in because of my past.


“Owa o.” I said to the driver as I got to my bus stop. I paid him, collected my change and watched as he zoomed off. I waited patiently at the bus stop for the road to clear so I could cross and enter my street. I was still waiting there when all of a sudden, a black tinted Toyota camry screeched to a stop in front of me. The back door yanked open and a huge man, dark glasses, wearing a mafia suit came out of the car, gave me a blinding slap and then bundled me inside the car. The car sped off. All happened in seconds.


My head was ringing; I felt blood on my lips. I touched my lower lip. There was a little cut and it was a bit swollen. It took a while for my eyes to readjust to the darkness inside the car. I was sandwiched between two huge men. The one who hit me was on my right. I could tell because he still had his glasses on. I studied my environment trying to make out any detail that would help me. The dimly lit car did not help matters. Two guys. I guessed they were thugs. The other guy wore a body hugging t-shirt, silver necklace and had a huge mustache. He was smoking and did not seem to care about me. The driver wore a face cap. Met his eyes about once or twice from the rear view mirror. There was no other passenger in front.


I could feel the eyes of my captor on me. I wanted to speak but was afraid to. I opened my mouth. Nothing came out. I was still in a state of shock. I quickly said a prayer for God to forgive me of my sins. I was too young too die. Different thought crossed my mind. These guys looked a little bit sophisticated. I did not owe any one money. I did not do any bad deals. Had my old life finally caught up with me? I managed to catch a glimpse of the macho’s wristwatch. It was pure gold. Welders. Were they ritual killers? I shuddered at the thought. So this was how I was going to die?


We were driving at high speeds, avoiding the small roads and sticking to the freeway. My eyes were accustomed to the dimly lit vehicle. I decided if I was going to die, I should at least know what was happening. As I made to open my mouth, Macho man’s phone rang.


“Hello ma. Yes ma’am, we got the package. Okay ma.”


The other guy finished his cigarette and lit another one. Package? Am I the package? A woman was calling the shots?


I decided to be brave.


“Good evening sir. Please sir what I have I done? Where are you taking me? I beg you in the name…” I began to say, facing Macho man.


The smoking thug gave me a powerful back hand slap to the side of my face.


I passed out.


The room was spacious and wide. Exotic furniture neatly arranged at the corners of the huge sitting room. The blinds were slightly drawn allowing a trickle of early morning sun into the room. There was a huge plasma on the wall and a bar to its left. The walls were painted white with an accent of blood red here and there in the room. The blinds were red, the couch, the reclining chair, the little table and even the bar was painted red. Every other thing was in pure white including the ceiling. Sophia paced uneasily to and fro. She had a bottle of Baileys on one hand and a wine cup in the other. She was restless. She was worried. Bruno and Marshal were yet to get back to her. This was a simple mission. Get the boy, and bring him to the safe house. She did not trust those fools but they had been highly recommended by Gambo. Now they were nowhere to be found.


Her phone rang again, it was the General. She had this strong desire not to answer the phone. But the General always knew. She answered it on the first ring.


“What is the situation on ground, S?” The General asked. She could see the wrinkles on his forehead. The General always knew. She was sure he already knew what the situation was. He had spies everywhere. That was why he was called the General. Everyone feared him. No one dared him. Very few people have met him. And the General hardly calls. When he did, there was trouble.


“The situation is under control sir.” Sophia answered.


“I did not ask if the situation was under control. I asked WHAT the situation is. I am going to call you pretty soon. You had better have an answer for me.” He said and hung up.


Typical General. Always the last to speak and never failing to seize an opportunity to keep you edgy. She knew that he knew that the fools she had sent to bring in the boy were MIA. This was her first major assignment. She really did not want to flop. She originally wanted to take a subtle measure. Lure him in with some girl. But that would take time and there was a chance he would not fall for the bait. Force was the only option.


They had been watching Sean for three months now, twenty four hours round the clock. They had a different agent on him every six hours. He had been chosen as the ideal candidate. Perfect height. Perfect age. Perfect face, countenance, education and work orientation. All that remained was to determine his lifestyle and how a typical day for Sean looked like. Sophia spent hours going over each agent’s report about Sean. She was always with her radio; the agents would phone in to say that Sean had changed routine or gone somewhere away from their jurisdiction. This was where her leadership came in. She would order them to follow or let him be. She had pulled her strings twice. Sean had made plans to travel out of the city. He had bought a ticket to fly to Abuja. This was going to put a huge hole in their plans. He had to be kept in the city at all costs. A call was made to the General. Sean was held back at work and denied leave to travel. Another time, his office had made plans for his department to travel for a refresher course in Kenya. Sophia was informed. The trip was terminated. They had contacts everywhere including the government. When they wanted something, they always got it.


They had considered kidnapping his girlfriend. The General did not want the silly police force involved. They would just be crawling everywhere, impeding progress. This was going to be a snatch and grab operation. Very few witnesses, if any. Sean lived a reckless life. His mother hardly monitored him. She believed he was capable of handling himself. They sometimes went three weeks without communicating. He had no close friends. His girlfriend was travelling out of the country. She was the only worry. A slight worry that could be easily fixed.
So they had decided to ‘grab’ Sean. They waited patiently for the opportunity. A black Toyota Prado was parked across the street opposite New Inn, the hotel that Sean and his girlfriend were in. They waited for five hours, listening in on their conversation and their s*x. Sean had been bugged. As usual. There was a different agent every day and a different agent for this purpose. A handshake, a hug, a collision, whatever brought physical contact. And they were good. The microchip was planted on him. The transmitter was live. Sean never suspected anything. They most times knew of his plans for the next day. So they had planned the smash and grab to perfection. They knew he was going home to see his mother that evening. They knew his girlfriend was going out of the country. They knew he would always wait to cross the road when he got down from the “keke napep”. That was when they would strike. They only hoped that he would not cross the road too soon or decide not to go home. If that happened they would have to hatch another plan.


A Toyota Camry was at Agric bus stop waiting for the signal to know when they would move. The Toyota Prado trailed the bus Sean was in. It was easy. Sophia was listening in the whole time via radio communication. She chipped in orders here and there and monitored the whole operation. The Toyota Camry traced the “keke-napep”, increased speed when Sean got off and picked him up at the bus stop. It was done. Mission accomplished. She called Marshal to confirm if he had the package. He was positive. The journey would take approximately 8 hours. They knew that. All contingency measures had been put in place. All possible loopholes were closed and taken care of. And if anything else came up unexpectedly out of the blues, there was Bruno. He was the brain. He had the ability of split second thinking. He was able to come up with ideas to go past seemingly impassable hurdles. But Sophia did not envision any problems. She had spoken to Marshal again at 2am when they were leaving Benin City, Edo State. All was going smoothly. She had decided to take a much needed nap.


She woke at 5am and found 7 missed calls and a message on her phone. All were from Bruno. She checked the time of the calls. 3:19 am. She checked the message:


“Mission in jeopardy. Bees on tail. Taking precaution.”


She panicked. She called the number. Switched off. poo! Why wasn’t she awake? She was angry with herself. She did not panic. The ability to keep cool under life threatening pressure was one of the abilities required of the agents at her level of clearance. She took a bottle of Baileys from the bar and calmed her nerves with the creamy alcohol. She was pacing and thinking. Then the General called and almost made her lose her wits. She was not called The Iron Lady for nothing. She thought for a while.


She called Gbenga.


“Gbenga. Yes. Take an SUV. Government plates. Take the mission route to Benin, Edo state. Sniff out Marshal and Bruno. Keep your eyes open and you head low. This is a Code Yellow. And take Mark with you.”


She hung up.


She sat down and crossed her legs, the bottle in one hand and the wine glass in the other. She tried to think of possible occurences that may have made Bruno call her. Bruno was capable. He was one of the candidates in line to succeed her. She shrugged. She decided to ease off. She took the home theater remote and pressed play. Yanni’s attraction played from the speakers. Soulful jazz. It helped her relax.


Just then the door opened.


Bruno entered, covered in mud and dirt.

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Think Big

"Get going. Move forward. Aim High. Plan a takeoff. Don't just sit on the runway and hope someone will come along and push the airplane. It simply won't happen. Change your attitude and gain some altitude. Believe me, you'll love it up here." --- Donald Trump Let's take it up a notch today! Marlene Oh Yes! That "Little Something Extra" Today: Think Big A man was caught and thrown into a pit of about "40 feet" deep, just because he was a stranger. He struggled trying to get out of the pit, but the more he tried, the weaker his muscles became. He said to himself, "I don't know how to get myself out of this. Maybe I should just die instead of enduring these miserable struggles and pains." Just then, he heard a voice screaming, "Help! Help!! Help!!!" The shouts were coming from another pit, which was "10 feet" deeper than the one he was in. He thought to himself, "Wow, so there is somebody else like me trapped here too." Listening carefully, he heard some cracking and sand dropping from the wall of the pit of the other victim. Immediately he summed up his courage and with his last bit of strength, started crawling little by little until he made it out of his pit.

Friday, April 26, 2013

Godswill Clement The Great Global Motivator!!!: MYCOPLASMA AND UREAPLASMA

Godswill Clement The Great Global Motivator!!!: MYCOPLASMA AND UREAPLASMA

MYCOPLASMA AND UREAPLASMA

MYCOPLASMA Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall.[1] Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases. Mycoplasma is the smallest known cell and is about 0.1 µm in diameter. Origin of the name The name Mycoplasma, from the Greek mykes (fungus) and plasma (formed), was first used by Albert Bernhard Frank in 1889. He thought it was a fungus, due to fungus-like characteristics.[2] An older name for Mycoplasma was Pleuro pneumonia-Like Organisms (PPLO), referring to organisms similar to the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP).[3] It was later found that the fungus-like growth pattern of M. mycoides is unique to that species. [edit] Characteristics There are over 100 recognized species of the genus Mycoplasma, one of several genera within the bacterial class Mollicutes. Mollicutes are parasites or commensals of humans, other animals (including insects), and plants; the genus Mycoplasma is by definition restricted to vertebrate hosts. Cholesterol is required for the growth of species of the genus Mycoplasma as well as certain other genera of mollicutes. Their optimum growth temperature is often the temperature of their host if warmbodied (e. g. 37° C in humans) or ambient temperature if the host is unable to regulate its own internal temperature. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences as well as gene content strongly suggest that the mollicutes, including the mycoplasmas, are closely related to either the Lactobacillus or the Clostridium branch of the phylogenetic tree (Firmicutes sensu stricto). [edit] Cell morphology The bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma (trivial name: mycoplasmas) and their close relatives are characterized by lack of a cell wall. Despite this, the cells often present a certain shape, with a characteristic small size, with typically about 10% of the volume of an Escherichia coli cell. These cell shapes presumably contribute to the ability of mycoplasmas to thrive in their respective environments. Most are pseudococcoidal, but there are notable exceptions. Species of the M. fastidiosum cluster are rod-shaped. Species of the M. pneumoniae cluster, including M. pneumoniae, possess a polar extension protruding from the pseudococcoidal cell body. This tip structure, designated an attachment organelle or terminal organelle, is essential for adherence to host cells and for movement along solid surfaces (gliding motility), and is implicated in normal cell division. M. pneumoniae cells are pleomorphic, with an attachment organelle of regular dimensions at one pole and a trailing filament of variable length and uncertain function at the other end, whereas other species in the cluster typically lack the trailing filament. Other species like M. mobile and M. pulmonis have similar structures with similar functions. Mycoplasmas are unusual among bacteria in that most require sterols for the stability of their cytoplasmic membrane. Sterols are acquired from the environment, usually as cholesterol from the animal host. Mycoplasmas generally possess a relatively small genome of 0.58-1.38 megabases, which results in drastically reduced biosynthetic capabilities and explains their dependence on a host. Additionally they use an alternate genetic code in which the codon UGA encodes the amino acid tryptophan instead of the usual stop codon. They have a low GC-content (23-40 mol %). [edit] First isolation In 1898 Nocard and Roux reported the cultivation of the causative agent of CBPP, which was at that time a grave and widespread disease in cattle herds.[4][5] The disease is caused by M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (small-colony type), and the work of Nocard and Roux represented the first isolation of a mycoplasma species. Cultivation was, and still is difficult because of the complex growth requirements. These researchers succeeded by inoculating a semi-permeable pouch of sterile medium with pulmonary fluid from an infected animal and depositing this pouch intraperitoneally into a live rabbit. After fifteen to twenty days, the fluid inside of the recovered pouch was opaque, indicating the growth of a microorganism. Opacity of the fluid was not seen in the control. This turbid broth could then be used to inoculate a second and third round and subsequently introduced into a healthy animal, causing disease. However, this did not work if the material was heated, indicating a biological agent at work. Uninoculated media in the pouch, after removal from the rabbit, could be used to grow the organism in vitro, demonstrating the possibility of cell-free cultivation and ruling out viral causes, although this was not fully appreciated at the time .[4] [edit] Small genome Recent advances in molecular biology and genomics have brought the genetically simple mycoplasmas, particularly M. pneumoniae and its close relative M. genitalium, to a larger audience. The second published complete bacterial genome sequence was that of M. genitalium, which has one of the smallest genomes of free-living organisms.[6] The M. pneumoniae genome sequence was published soon afterwards and was the first genome sequence determined by primer walking of a cosmid library instead of the whole-genome shotgun method.[7] Mycoplasma genomics and proteomics continue in efforts to understand the so-called minimal cell,[8] catalog the entire protein content of a cell,[9] and generally continue to take advantage of the small genome of these organisms to understand broad biological concepts. [edit] Taxonomy The medical and agricultural importance of members of the genus Mycoplasma and related genera has led to the extensive cataloging of many of these organisms by culture, serology, and small subunit rRNA gene and whole genome sequencing. A recent focus in the sub-discipline of molecular phylogenetics has both clarified and confused certain aspects of the organization of the class Mollicutes.[10] Originally the trivial name "mycoplasmas" has commonly denoted all members of the class Mollicutes. The name "Mollicutes" is derived from the Latin mollis (soft) and cutes (skin), and all of these bacteria do lack a cell wall and the genetic capability to synthesize peptidoglycan. Now Mycoplasma is a genus in Mollicutes. Despite the lack of a cell wall, many taxonomists have classified Mycoplasma and relatives in the phylum Firmicutes, consisting of low G+C Gram-positive bacteria such as Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The order Mycoplasmatales contains a single family, Mycoplasmataceae, comprising two genera: Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. Historically, the description of a bacterium lacking a cell wall was sufficient to classify it to the genus Mycoplasma and as such it is the oldest and largest genus of the class with about half of the class' species (107 validly described), each usually limited to a specific host and with many hosts harboring more than one species, some pathogenic and some commensal. In later studies, many of these species were found to be phylogenetically distributed among at least three separate orders. A limiting criterion for inclusion within the genus Mycoplasma is that the organism have a vertebrate host. In fact, the type species, M. mycoides, along with other significant mycoplasma species like M. capricolum, is evolutionarily more closely related to the genus Spiroplasma in the order Entomoplasmatales than to the other members of the Mycoplasma genus. This and other discrepancies will likely remain unresolved because of the extreme confusion that change could engender among the medical and agricultural communities. The remaining species in the genus Mycoplasma are divided into three non-taxonomic groups, hominis, pneumoniae and fermentans, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The hominis group contains the phylogenetic clusters of M. bovis, M. pulmonis, and M. hominis, among others. M. hyopneumoniae is a primary bacterial agent of the porcine respiratory disease complex. The pneumoniae group contains the clusters of M. muris, M. fastidiosum, U. urealyticum, the currently unculturable haemotrophic mollicutes, informally referred to as haemoplasmas (recently transferred from the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon), and the M. pneumoniae cluster. This cluster contains the species (and the usual or likely host) M. alvi (bovine), M. amphoriforme (human), M. gallisepticum (avian), M. genitalium (human), M. imitans (avian), M. pirum (uncertain/human), M. testudinis (tortoises), and M. pneumoniae (human). Most if not all of these species share some otherwise unique characteristics including an attachment organelle, homologs of the M. pneumoniae cytadherence-accessory proteins, and specialized modifications of the cell division apparatus. A study of 143 genes in 15 species of Mycoplasma suggests that the genus can be grouped into four clades: the M. hyopneumoniae group, the M. mycoides group, the M. pneumoniae group and a Bacillus-Phytoplasma group.[11] The M. hyopneumoniae group is more closely related to the M. pneumoniae group than the M. mycoides group. [edit] Laboratory contaminant Mycoplasma species are often found in research laboratories as contaminants in cell culture. Mycoplasmal cell culture contamination occurs due to contamination from individuals or contaminated cell culture medium ingredients[clarification needed][citation needed]. Mycoplasma cells are physically small – less than 1 µm – and they are therefore difficult to detect with a conventional microscope. Mycoplasmas may induce cellular changes, including chromosome aberrations, changes in metabolism and cell growth. Severe Mycoplasma infections may destroy a cell line. Detection techniques include DNA Probe, enzyme immunoassays, PCR, plating on sensitive agar and staining with a DNA stain including DAPI or Hoechst. It has been estimated that at least 11 to 15% of U.S. laboratory cell cultures are contaminated with mycoplasma. [12] A Corning study showed that half of U.S. scientists did not test for mycoplasma contamination in their cell cultures. The study also stated that, in former Czechoslovakia, 100% of cell cultures that were not routinely tested were contaminated while only 2% of those routinely tested were contaminated (study page 6). Since the U.S. contamination rate was based on a study of companies that routinely checked for mycoplasma, the actual contamination rate may be higher. European contamination rates are higher and that of other countries are higher still (up to 80% of Japanese cell cultures).[13] About 1% of published Gene Expression Omnibus data may have been compromised.[14][15] Several antibiotic based formulation of anti-mycoplasma reagents have been developed over the years.[16] [edit] Synthetic mycoplasma genome A chemically synthesized genome of a mycoplasmal cell based entirely on synthetic DNA which can self-replicate has been referred to as Mycoplasma laboratorium.[17] Pathogenicity Several Mycoplasma species can cause disease, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia (formerly known as "walking pneumonia"), and M. genitalium, which has been associated with pelvic inflammatory diseases. Mycoplasma infections in humans are associated with skin eruptions in 17% of cases.[18]:293 [edit] Links to cancer Several species of mycoplasma are frequently detected in different types of cancer cells. [19][20][21] These species are: M. fermentans [22][19][23][20][21][24] M. genitalium [25] M. hyorhinis [26][19][25] M. penetrans [22][19][20][21][24] The majority of these mycoplasma have shown a strong correlation to malignant transformation in mammalian cells in vitro. [edit] Mycoplasma infection and host cell transformation The presence of mycoplasma was first reported in samples of cancer tissue in the 1960s. [21] Since then there have been several studies trying to find and prove the connection between mycoplasma and cancer, as well as how the bacterium might be involved in the formation of cancer. [20] Several studies have shown that cells that are chronically infected with the bacteria go through a multistep transformation. The changes caused by chronic mycoplasmal infections occur gradually and are both morphological and genetic. [20] The first visual sign of infection is when the cells gradually shift from their normal form to sickle shaped. They also become hyperchromatic due to an increase of DNA in the nucleus of the cells. In later stages, the cells lose the need for a solid support in order to grow and proliferate as well as the normal contact dependent inhibition. [21] [edit] Possible intracellular mechanisms of mycoplasmal malignant transformation Karyotypic changes related to mycoplasma infections Cells infected with mycoplasma for an extended period of time show significant chromosomal abnormalities. These include the addition of chromosomes, the loss of entire chromosomes, partial loss of chromosomes and chromosomal translocation. All of these genetic abnormalities may contribute to the process of malignant transformation. Chromosomal translocation and extra chromosomes help create abnormally high activity of certain proto-oncogenes. Proto-oncogenes with increased activity caused by these genetic abnormalities include those encoding c-myc, HRAS, [22] and vav. [20] The activity of proto-oncogenes is not the only cellular function that is affected; tumour suppressor genes are affected by the chromosomal changes induced by mycoplasma as well. Partial or complete loss of chromosomes causes the loss of important genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. [21] Two genes whose activities are markedly decreased during chronic infections with mycoplasma are the Rb and the p53 tumour suppressor genes. [20] A major feature that differentiates mycoplasmas from other carcinogenic pathogens is that the mycoplasmas do not cause the cellular changes by insertion of their own genetic material into the host cell. [22] The exact mechanism by which the bacterium causes the changes is not yet known. Partial reversibility of malignant transformations The malignant transformation induced by mycoplasma is also different from that caused by other pathogens in that the process is reversible. The state of reversal is, however, only possible up to a certain point during the infection. The window of time that reversibility is possible varies greatly; it depends primarily on the mycoplasma involved. In the case of M. fermentans, the transformation is reversible up until around week 11 of infection and starts to become irreversible between week 11 and 18. [21] If the bacteria are killed using antibiotics [21] (i.e. ciprofloxacin [20] or Clarithromycin [27]) before the irreversible stage, the infected cells should return to normal. [edit] Connections to cancer in vivo and future research Though mycoplasmas are confirmed to be carcinogenic in vitro, it is not yet confirmed whether mycoplasma might be an actual cause of cancer in vivo. [25] The uncertainties regarding the bacteria’s potential to cause malignancies is mostly due to the fact that the cells used for the studies are most often from immortalised cell lines like the BEAS-2B cells. These are essentially cells on the verge of becoming cancer cells. One big problem with using these cells to confirm carcinogenic properties is that they will transform spontaneously after 32 passagings (when a small number of cells are transferred into a new vessel to extend culture duration). [25] This, and the fact that no malignant transformation has been detected in non-immortalised “normal” cells that have been infected, might be an indication that mycoplasmas accelerates a cell’s progression towards malignancy, rather than actually causing it. No mycoplasma-generated cancer has yet to be documented in in vivo cultures. It might, however, be possible that very long, chronic infections of mycoplasma are able to cause cancer in non-immortalised cells. This is not yet known since non-immortalised cells can only divide for a limited number of times, and therefore it has not been possible to keep culturing them long enough to develop cancer. [25] More research is needed to confirm that mycoplasma infections cause cancer or initiate malignancies in human cells. This might be an important step to treat and prevent cancer. [25] [edit] Types of cancer associated with mycoplasma Colon cancer: In a study to understand the effects of mycoplasma contamination on the quality of cultured human colon cancer cells, it was found that there is a positive correlation between the amount of M. hyorhinis present in the sample and the percentage of CD133 positive cells (a glycoprotein with an unknown function). Further tests and analysis are required to determine the exact reason for this phenomenon. [28] Gastric cancer: There are strong indications that the infection of M. hyorhinis contributes to the development of cancer within the stomach and increases the likelihood of malignant cancer cell development. [29] Lung cancer: Studies on lung cancer have supported the belief that there is more than a coincidental positive correlation between the appearance of Mycoplasma strains in patients and the infection with tumorigenesis. Because this is a such a new area of research, more studies must be performed to further understand the correlation and determine possible preventative steps for lung cancer involving mycoplasma. [30] Prostate cancer: p37, a protein encoded for by M. hyorhinis, has been found to promote the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. The protein also causes the growth, morphology, and the gene expression of the cells to change, causing them to become a more aggressive phenotype. [31] Renal Cancer: Patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibited a significantly high amount of Mycoplasma sp. compared with the healthy control group. This suggests that mycoplasma may play a role in the development of RCC. [27] [edit] References ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 409–12. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. ^ Krass CJ, Gardner MW (January 1973). "Etymology of the Term Mycoplasma". Int. J. Of Syst. Bact. 23 (1): 62–64. doi:10.1099/00207713-23-1-62. ^ Edward DG, Freundt EA (February 1956). "The classification and nomenclature of organisms of the pleuropneumonia group". J. Gen. Microbiol. 14 (1): 197–207. PMID 13306904. ^ a b Nocard EIE , Roux E (1990). "The microbe of pleuropneumonia. 1896". Rev. Infect. Dis. 12 (2): 354–8. doi:10.1093/clinids/12.2.354. PMID 2184501. "translation of Le microbe de la péripneumonie. Ann Inst Pasteur 12, 240-262, 1898" ^ Hayflick L, Chanock RM (June 1965). "Mycoplasma Species of Man". Bacteriol Rev 29 (2): 185–221. PMC 441270. PMID 14304038. ^ Fraser CM, Gocayne JD, White O, Adams MD, Clayton RA, Fleischmann RD, Bult CJ, Kerlavage AR, Sutton G, Kelley JM, Fritchman RD, Weidman JF, Small KV, Sandusky M, Fuhrmann J, Nguyen D, Utterback TR, Saudek DM, Phillips CA, Merrick JM, Tomb JF, Dougherty BA, Bott KF, Hu PC, Lucier TS, Peterson SN, Smith HO, Hutchison CA, Venter JC (October 1995). "The minimal gene complement of Mycoplasma genitalium". Science 270 (5235): 397–403. doi:10.1126/science.270.5235.397. PMID 7569993. UREAPLASMA Ureaplasma urealyticum is a bacterium belonging to the family Mycoplasmataceae. Its type strain is T960. Contents 1 Clinical significance 2 Classification 3 Treatment 4 References 5 External links Clinical significance U. urealyticum is part of the normal genital flora of both men and women.[citation needed] It is found in about 70% of sexually active humans.[citation needed] It had also been associated with a number of diseases in humans, including non-specific urethritis (NSU), infertility, chorioamnionitis, stillbirth, premature birth, and, in the perinatal period, pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia[1] and meningitis. However, given the relatively low pathogenicity of the organism its role in some of these diseases remains contentious. U. urealyticum has been noted as one of the infectious causes of sterile pyuria.[2] Classification There are six recognised Ureaplasma species, They have a GC content of 27–30%, and a genome size ranging between 0.76–1.17 Mbp, and cholesterol is required for growth. A defining characteristic of the genus is that they perform urea hydrolysis. It is now recommended that some strains originally classified as Ureaplasma urealyticum should be treated as a new species, U. parvum. Treatment Doxycycline is the drug of choice but Azithromycin is also used as a 5 day course rather than a single dose that would be used to treat Chlamydia;[3] streptomycin is an alternative but is less popular because it must be injected. Penicillins are ineffective — U. urealyticum does not have a cell wall,[4] which is the drug's main target.[5] Long Term Effects of Ureaplasma The main cause of ureaplasma is a minute bacterium that enters the body and later on acts as a virus. Ureaplasma lives in the body for a very long period of time without causing any discomfort whatsoever. In addition, ureaplasma can exist without the knowledge of the person infected by it. The spread of ureaplasma is aided by bodily fluids that are mucus like. Ureaplasma is curable and can as well be treated by using antibiotics. It is important to note that in case ureaplasma goes for several days, months or years without being treated can bring about meningitis, pneumonia as well as infertility. Ureaplasma can be transmitted by having unprotected sexual contact facilitates the spread of the causal bacteria. Having said this, here are the long term effects of ureaplasma. Firstly, ureaplasma can result in fertility problems. This is simply because ureaplasma is largely linked to tubal infection as well as decreased sperm motility. This plays a major role in causing infertility. It has been discovered that a majority of women who end up having miscarriages may be suffering from this condition. The most daunting aspect about ureaplasma is that a person who is infected does not experience any symptoms thus cannot be able to know all about ureaplasma. Another long term effect of ureaplasma is complications on the urinary tract. If left untreated, this can as well cause damage to the kidney. Additionally, if ureaplasma is left untreated, it can penetrate through the blood stream thus resulting to a condition that is fatal. This can lead to sepsis which takes place when the immune system destroys the body tissues in direct response to the ureaplasma infection. Long Term Complications If ureaplasma is left untreated for a long period of time, it can cause urethritis in both men and women. This condition comes about when the urethra becomes inflamed. In most cases, those infected will tend to have symptoms such as burning sensation while urinating, smelly discharge and some blood spotting in the urine. In case the ureaplasma condition is left untreated for a long period of time, ureaplasma can affect the bladder as well as other reproductive organs which can be fatal in the long run. Ureaplasma can cause long term effect in terms on the chronic urinary tract. A majority of patients will tend to have chronic urinary tract diseases that are caused by ureaplasma bacteria. The best thing about ureaplasma is that, qualified physicians can easily remove the bacteria through the use of antibiotics. However, for all those suffering from these tract diseases, they can be prescribed for antibiotic and at the same time undergo retests to determine the presence of ureaplasma bacteria. In case there is presence of ureaplasma bacteria, the physician will be prompted to prescribe the patient with a different antibiotic that will help in treating the condition. Most of the people who have this type of ureaplasma condition tend to urinate more often with no result at all, pain in the pelvic, pain while urinating, have urine that is cloudy and some blood traces in the urine. What is ureaplasma? Ureaplasma is a particularly small bacterium belonging to the family Mycoplasmataceae (commonly known as mycoplasma). There are seventeen identified species, most usually found in the respiratory and urogenital tracts. U. urealyticum is commonly found in the genital flora of sexually active men and women. It is found in about 70% of sexually active humans, and is usually commensal (harmless and symptom-free). You have a high chance of being infected with it if you have unprotected sex with someone who has had other sexual partners, and your chances of infection increase dramatically with the number of different partners. Even if you have no symptoms, you can still pass the microorganisms in your genitals to your partner(s). This is why so many adults are infected - the infected source person has no symptoms, and usually the person they infect also shows no symptoms. You are STRONGLY advised to have a pathology test if you have any symptoms, because there is a chance you may have, and be passing on, another more serious disease to your partner(s). Possible symptoms of ureaplasma • For most people, Ureaplasma remains in the genitals and has no effect or symptoms. • A continual dull ache or pain around the genitals. • Burning or pain when urinating. • Ureaplasma has been associated with a number of diseases such as non-specific urethritis (NSU) and sterile pyuria. • Whether Ureaplasma can cause infertility, chorioamnionitis, stillbirth, premature birth, and, in the perinatal period, pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and meningitis is contentious. Risk of having symptoms • The older you are when you get your initial ureaplasma infection, the more likely that you will suffer a mild pain, an NSU or some other symptoms. • If your immune system is weak, there is an increased chance of suffering from the above symptoms. Treatment If you are suffering any symptoms, it is important to provide a urine sample for testing by a pathology lab. This will rule out the possibility of infection by a more dangerous bacteria / protozoa. Conventional medicine usually treats a u. urealyticum infection with antibiotic doxycycline or streptomycin. Of course both partners must be treated, and outside of a strictly monogamous relationship there is a high chance of re-infection. It requires a strong course of antibiotics, and there is a possibility that your digestive and other beneficial bacteria will be devastated, with a risk of development of IBS and other problems. The natural home remedy approach to treating ureaplasma urealyticum is to leave them alone - in a healthy person they are a commensal - in other words, they should cause no problems, and most sexually active people have them. If your symptoms are serious AND a test has confirmed a u. urealyticum infection and no other infections or causes, a natural antibiotic such as colloidal silver may be able to contain the bacterial overgrowth. Usually the symptoms improve or resolve over a period of weeks or months, and an improvement in the strength of your immune system may also contain the infection. References ^ Kafetzis DA, Skevaki CL, Skouteri V, et al (October 2004). "Maternal genital colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum promotes preterm delivery: association of the respiratory colonization of premature infants with chronic lung disease and increased mortality". Clin. Infect. Dis. 39 (8): 1113–22. doi:10.1086/424505. PMID 15486833. ^ Dieter RS (2000). "Sterile pyuria: a differential diagnosis". Compr Ther 26 (3): 150–2. doi:10.1007/s12019-000-0001-1. PMID 10984817. ^ http://www.thesticlinic.com/ureaplasma-urealyticum.aspx ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128564/ ^ http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/652penicillin.html UREAPLASMA & MYCOPLASMA (Also Called 'Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma Infections') What are ureaplasma and mycoplasma infections? Ureaplasma and mycoplasma are among the smallest free-living bacteria. Unlike other bacteria however, these organisms lack a cell wall and live inside cells. However, they can also live in cultures outside of cells, similar to the way viruses live. Unlike viruses, though, they can be killed by certain antibiotics. What symptoms do ureaplasma and mycoplasma cause? Symptoms can be "silent" or can cause noticeable symptoms such as discharge, burning, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and pain. How are ureaplasma and mycoplasma diagnosed? Special laboratory tests and cultures (a method of multiplying the bacteria to better identify them) is required. The diagnosis and treatment of illnesses involving these organisms is particularly difficult due to the following reasons: These organisms require special tests and even when these special tests are conducted, it can still be very difficult to isolate the organisms and treat the patient. The tests are not something done by a typical general practitioner or gynecologist. Only a select few antibiotics kill these particular bacteria and the antibiotics have to be taken for many days, weeks, or even longer. Many patients do not take their medications as prescribed; do not take their medications long enough to be cured; or come in close contact with an infected person and become reinfected. It is important to note that the illnesses caused by these bacteria can be acquired in all kinds of ways. As an example, one of the ways ureaplasma can be acquired is through sexual relations. However, a diagnosis of ureaplasma in yourself or your partner does not imply that infidelity took place. There is no way of knowing for sure how or when the organism was actually transmitted to the first partner. What is known for sure is that both partners are treated to help prevent any possible spread and development of bladder problems between the two individuals. How are illnesses caused by ureaplasma and mycoplasma treated? Treatment usually consists of the use of certain antibiotics, out of a family of antibiotics called the tetracyclines or erythromycins. Be sure to inform the doctor if you are allergic to the medication before taking it. Do not engage in sexual activity while you are taking the antibiotic prescription. Take the antibiotic as prescribed and for the full length as directed on the prescription label. This is important to ensure that the organism is fully eliminated. Important. If you are sexually active, your partner will need to be prescribed antibiotics to treat the infection. First-line treatments are either: doxycycline 100 mg, 1 pill, taken by mouth twice daily for 14 days, or erythromycin 400 mg, 2 pills, taken by mouth four times a day for 7 days Ideally, the partner should be placed on the same antibiotic as the patient. You should be retested for the organism after finishing the course of antibiotics, which can be done at your local hospital, your local doctor's office, or a lab. At that time, a urine or vaginal specimen will be taken and recultured to determine if the bacteria is completely eliminated from your body. We advise that your partner be tested or retested for this organism. Sometime you may need another round of antibiotic to treat the infection again. MICROBIOLOGY OF BIOFIMS A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings.[1][2] The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics.[3][4] When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.[ Formation Formation of a biofilm begins with the attachment of free-floating microorganisms to a surface. These first colonists adhere to the surface initially through weak, reversible adhesion via van der Waals forces. If the colonists are not immediately separated from the surface, they can anchor themselves more permanently using cell adhesion structures such as pili.[6] Hydrophobicity also plays an important role in determining the ability of bacteria to form biofilms, as those with increased hydrophobicity have reduced repulsion between the extracellular matrix and the bacterium.[7] Some species are not able to attach to a surface on their own but are sometimes able to anchor themselves to the matrix or directly to earlier colonists. It is during this colonization that the cells are able to communicate via quorum sensing using products such as AHL. Some bacteria are unable to form biofilms as successfully due to their limited motility. Nonmotile bacteria cannot recognize the surface or aggregate together as easily as motile bacteria.[8] Once colonization has begun, the biofilm grows through a combination of cell division and recruitment. Polysaccharide matrices typically enclose bacterial biofilms. In addition to the polysaccharides, these matrices may also contain material from the surrounding environment, including but not limited to minerals, soil particles, and blood components, such as erythrocytes and fibrin.[9] The final stage of biofilm formation is known as dispersion, and is the stage in which the biofilm is established and may only change in shape and size. The development of a biofilm may allow for an aggregate cell colony (or colonies) to be increasingly antibiotic resistant. [edit] Development There are five stages of biofilm development (see illustration at right): Initial attachment: Irreversible attachment: Maturation I: Maturation II: Dispersion: [edit] Dispersal Dispersal of cells from the biofilm colony is an essential stage of the biofilm life cycle. Dispersal enables biofilms to spread and colonize new surfaces. Enzymes that degrade the biofilm extracellular matrix, such as dispersin B and deoxyribonuclease, may play a role in biofilm dispersal.[10][11] Biofilm matrix degrading enzymes may be useful as anti-biofilm agents.[12][13] Recent evidence has shown that a fatty acid messenger, cis-2-decenoic acid, is capable of inducing dispersion and inhibiting growth of biofilm colonies. Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, this compound induces cyclo heteromorphic cells in several species of bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.[14] Nitric oxide has also been shown to trigger the dispersal of biofilms of several bacteria species [15][16] at sub-toxic concentrations. Nitric oxide has the potential for the treatment of patients that suffer from chronic infections caused by biofilms.[17] [edit] Properties Biofilms are usually found on solid substrates submerged in or exposed to an aqueous solution, although they can form as floating mats on liquid surfaces and also on the surface of leaves, particularly in high humidity climates. Given sufficient resources for growth, a biofilm will quickly grow to be macroscopic (visible to the naked eye). Biofilms can contain many different types of microorganism, e.g. bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi and algae; each group performs specialized metabolic functions. However, some organisms will form single-species films under certain conditions. The social structure (cooperation, competition) within a biofilm highly depends on the different species present.[18] [edit] Extracellular matrix The biofilm is held together and protected by a matrix of secreted polymeric compounds called EPS. EPS is an abbreviation for either extracellular polymeric substance or exopolysaccharide. This matrix protects the cells within it and facilitates communication among them through biochemical signals. Some biofilms have been found to contain water channels that help distribute nutrients and signalling molecules.[19] This matrix is strong enough that under certain conditions, biofilms can become fossilized (Stromatolites). Bacteria living in a biofilm usually have significantly different properties from free-floating bacteria of the same species, as the dense and protected environment of the film allows them to cooperate and interact in various ways. One benefit of this environment is increased resistance to detergents and antibiotics, as the dense extracellular matrix and the outer layer of cells protect the interior of the community. In some cases antibiotic resistance can be increased a thousandfold.[20] Lateral gene transfer is greatly facilitated in biofilms and leads to a more stable biofilm structure.[21] However, biofilms are not always less susceptible to antibiotics. For instance, the biofilm form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has no greater resistance to antimicrobials than do stationary-phase planktonic cells, although when the biofilm is compared to logarithmic phase planktonic cells, the biofilm does have greater resistance to antimicrobials. This resistance to antibiotics in both stationary phase cells and biofilms may be due to the presence of persister cells.[22] [edit] Examples Biofilms are ubiquitous. Nearly every species of microorganism, not only bacteria and archaea, have mechanisms by which they can adhere to surfaces and to each other. Biofilms will form on virtually every non-shedding surface in a non-sterile aqueous (or very humid) environment. • Biofilms can be found on rocks and pebbles at the bottom of most streams or rivers and often form on the surface of stagnant pools of water. In fact, biofilms are important components of food chains in rivers and streams and are grazed by the aquatic invertebrates upon which many fish feed. • Biofilms can grow in the most extreme environments: from, for example, the extremely hot, briny waters of hot springs ranging from very acidic to very alkaline, to frozen glaciers. • In the human environment, biofilms can grow in showers very easily since they provide a moist and warm environment for the biofilm to thrive. Biofilms can form inside water and sewage pipes and cause clogging and corrosion. Biofilms on floors and counters can make sanitation difficult in food preparation areas. • Biofilms in cooling- or heating-water systems are known to reduce heat transfer.[23] • Biofilms in marine engineering systems, such as pipelines of the offshore oil and gas industry,[24] can lead to substantial corrosion problems. Corrosion is mainly due to abiotic factors; however, at least 20% of corrosion is caused by microorganisms that are attached to the metal subsurface (i.e., microbially influenced corrosion). • Bacterial adhesion to boat hulls serves as the foundation for biofouling of seagoing vessels. Once a film of bacteria forms, it is easier for other marine organisms such as barnacles to attach. Such fouling can reduce maximum vessel speed by up to 20%, prolonging voyages and consuming fuel. Time in dry dock for refitting and repainting reduces the productivity of shipping assets, and the useful life of ships is also reduced due to corrosion and mechanical removal (scraping) of marine organisms from ships' hulls. • Biofilms can also be harnessed for constructive purposes. For example, many sewage treatment plants include a treatment stage in which waste water passes over biofilms grown on filters, which extract and digest organic compounds. In such biofilms, bacteria are mainly responsible for removal of organic matter (BOD), while protozoa and rotifers are mainly responsible for removal of suspended solids (SS), including pathogens and other microorganisms. Slow sand filters rely on biofilm development in the same way to filter surface water from lake, spring or river sources for drinking purposes. What we regard as clean water is effectively a waste material to these microcellular organisms. • Biofilms can help eliminate petroleum oil from contaminated oceans or marine systems. The oil is eliminated by the hydrocarbon-degrading activities of microbial communities, in particular by a remarkable recently discovered group of specialists, the so-called hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB).[25] • Stromatolites are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by microbial biofilms, especially of cyanobacteria. Stromatolites include some of the most ancient records of life on Earth, and are still forming today. • Biofilms are present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. • Biofilms are found on the surface of and inside plants. They can either contribute to crop disease or, as in the case of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium on roots, exist symbiotically with the plant.[26] Examples of crop diseases related to biofilms include Citrus Canker, Pierce's Disease of grapes, and Bacterial Spot of plants such as peppers and tomatoes.[27] • Biofilms are used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to generate electricity from a variety of starting materials, including complex organic waste and renewable biomass.[2] [edit] Biofilms and infectious diseases Biofilms have been found to be involved in a wide variety of microbial infections in the body, by one estimate 80% of all infections.[28] Infectious processes in which biofilms have been implicated include common problems such as urinary tract infections, catheter infections, middle-ear infections, formation of dental plaque,[29] gingivitis,[29] coating contact lenses,[30] and less common but more lethal processes such as endocarditis, infections in cystic fibrosis, and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses and heart valves.[31][32] More recently it has been noted that bacterial biofilms may impair cutaneous wound healing and reduce topical antibacterial efficiency in healing or treating infected skin wounds.[33] It has recently been shown that biofilms are present on the removed tissue of 80% of patients undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis. The patients with biofilms were shown to have been denuded of cilia and goblet cells, unlike the controls without biofilms who had normal cilia and goblet cell morphology.[34] Biofilms were also found on samples from two of 10 healthy controls mentioned. The species of bacteria from interoperative cultures did not correspond to the bacteria species in the biofilm on the respective patient's tissue. In other words, the cultures were negative though the bacteria were present.[35] Biofilms can also be formed on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine devices. [36] New staining techniques are being developed to differentiate bacterial cells growing in living animals, e.g. from tissues with allergy-inflammations .[37] Research has shown that sub-therapeutic levels of β-lactam antibiotics induce biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. This sub-therapeutic level of antibiotic may result from the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in agriculture, or during the normal course of antibiotic therapy. The biofilm formation induced by low-level methicillin was inhibited by DNase, suggesting that the sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotic also induce extracellular DNA release. [38] [edit] Dental plaque Dental plaque is the material that adheres to the teeth and consists of bacterial cells (mainly Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis), salivary polymers and bacterial extracellular products. Plaque is a biofilm on the surfaces of the teeth. This accumulation of microorganisms subject the teeth and gingival tissues to high concentrations of bacterial metabolites which results in dental disease.[29][39] [edit] Legionellosis Legionella bacteria are known to grow under certain conditions in biofilms, in which they are protected against disinfectants. Workers in cooling towers, persons working in air conditioned rooms and people taking a shower are exposed to Legionella by inhalation when the systems are not well designed, constructed, or maintained.[40] [edit] References ^ Hall-Stoodley L, Costerton JW, Stoodley P (February 2004). "Bacterial biofilms: from the natural environment to infectious diseases". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 2 (2): 95–108. doi:10.1038/nrmicro821. PMID 15040259. ^ a b Lear, G; Lewis, GD (editor) (2012). Microbial Biofilms: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-96-7. ^ Karatan E, Watnick P (June 2009). "Signals, regulatory networks, and materials that build and break bacterial biofilms". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 73 (2): 310–47. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00041-08. PMC 2698413. PMID 19487730. ^ Hoffman LR, D'Argenio DA, MacCoss MJ, Zhang Z, Jones RA, Miller SI (August 2005). "Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm formation". Nature 436 (7054): 1171–5. doi:10.1038/nature03912. PMID 16121184. (primary source) ^ An D, Parsek MR (June 2007). "The promise and peril of transcriptional profiling in biofilm communities". Current Opinion in Microbiology 10 (3): 292–6. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.05.011. PMID 17573234. ^ JPG Images: niaid.nih.gov erc.montana.edu ^ Donlan, Rodney M. 2002. Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 8, No. 9: pg. 881-890. ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by an endogenous beta-hexosaminidase activity". Journal of Bacteriology 185 (16): 4693–8. doi:10.1128/JB.185.16.4693-4698.2003. PMC 166467. PMID 12896987. ^ Izano EA, Amarante MA, Kher WB, Kaplan JB (January 2008). "Differential roles of poly-N-acetylglucosamine surface polysaccharide and extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74 (2): 470–6. doi:10.1128/AEM.02073-07. PMC 2223269. PMID 18039822.

Monday, February 21, 2011

Get The Break You Need... Quickly...

That one break, that one opportunity, if you could only
get it would turn things around, get you back on track
and lead to success and better days.
Today I'm going to show you how to get that break
so that you begin to enjoy life again.
That break, that would help you turn things around
is really the right opportunity.
That opportunity could be a relationship, a promotion, a job offer,
a way to make more money, a business, an investment, anything
that you want... so today I'll show you how to attract and
discover that opportunity or that break quickly and easily.
Read on and enjoy.
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
There's a simple way to attract any opportunity you want.
You only have to follow the process and the results will follow.
Here's a real life example and it comes from
someone who has been working with my material.
Last week I got an email from David Haskin who
wanted to start up a health care business
but didn't have the funding.
His goal was to get the money together.
David knew some well connected people but
wasn't getting anywhere with them.
I suggested he keep working with the material
and be open to new possibilities.
Then one day something happened that many
would say was just pure coincidence.
But we both knew it wasn't and that there
was more going on.
A friend of David's told him about an upcoming
event and invited David and his wife as his guests.
That night David met an old friend who had
been very successful in business and was looking
for new ventures.
To cut a long story short; the two partnered and David
opened his first store 10 months ago and is putting together his own
private label of health care products.
Coincidence?
I don't think so.
David had been training his mind and subconscious mind
on a daily basis; directing them to guide him to the
right opportunity.
He followed up with action, and continued doing
everything he could to get to meet the right people
and discover the right opportunity to generate
the money he needed for his new business.
Finally his subconscious responded and David
listened to his instincts and followed up on
an opportunity by simply going to an event with his friend.
When he met an old friend David didn't turn away,
he didn't ignore him - he treated him like a
friend and explained what he was doing and what
he wanted to do.
These simple acts helped him secure funding for his
business and launch what promises to be a lucrative career.
But this all happened only after he had laid the foundation
by instructing his subconscious mind to guide him to
the right people and opportunities - then he trusted
that it would happen.
You too can create the situations that will
catapult you to success.
When you feed your mind and subconscious mind the
positive messages to get what you want,
your subconscious goes out and creates the
situations, and attracts the people to help you
accomplish your goals.
But you have to follow up.
You have to see every situation that comes up as an opportunity.
You will be guided along the way, and if you focus on making
the right decisions - you will.
You also have to follow up by following your
instincts and taking action.
Then you create the right situations and
opportunities to help you accomplish your goals.
All you have to do is direct your subconscious mind
to help you achieve what you want by following
the simple steps outlined. Get started today - visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
How YOU Can Create The Right Opportunities
First let me clearly state that there is no such
thing as coincidence. Instead you orchestrate
everything that happens to you - even what you
think is a coincidence is created by you on some level.
You create these so called coincidences or
opportunities by working with the power of
your mind and subconscious mind which works
in harmony with the universe.
You can create good or bad things in your life
it's really your choice.
The negative things that occur, happen because you don't
properly instruct your subconscious mind to create
the kind of so called coincidences to help you.
Or you refused to obey the warning signs that
come up everyday.
These signs help you by trying to push you in a certain direction.
When you fail to follow these signs, things don't
work out and you end up creating exactly what you don't want.
Nothing happens by chance.
You orchestrate every coincidence that happens in your life.
When you accept this you empower yourself and you're able to
take back control and direct your subconscious mind
to attract what you want, when you want.
Here's how you orchestrate your own apparent coincidences,
situations and opportunities - including those that work
for you or against you.
When you're focused on something, when you think
about it regularly, when it's a priority in your
life then you'll begin to notice little
coincidences pop up.
When you're calm, relaxed and trust that you'll
find or get what you're looking for then the
coincidences become more apparent.
When your mind is quiet and not filled with
negative thoughts and doubts then you'll see
these coincidences happen sooner.
So if you constantly worry, live in fear, or your angry,
frustrated or just plain negative then you'll
create coincidences that are negative or lead to more misery.
You'll attract the people who support what you constantly
think about and believe.
You'll also create events that make you believe
that you need to worry or be angry about something.
To create your own positive coincidences, positive opportunities
or positive events focus on what you want.
Think about what you want to happen.
Then begin telling yourself that you're doing the right things
and making the right choices to succeed or get what you want.
Then trust and let go.
This may not seem easy but trusting and letting go is
actually the most important part.
So the sooner you get comfortable with the process
the sooner you'll get results.
Be patient and be alert.
Watch for little things that come up remember there
is no such thing as coincidence.
When you notice what looks like a coincidence
make a note of it and remember the process is
already at work and soon the right coincidence
will arrive to help you achieve your goal.
Remember you will be guided to what is best for you
all you have to do is follow the signs along the road.
Read them, pay attention to what appear to be coincidences.
You can create the life you want.
You can attract the people that will help you.
You can achieve your goals and be happy.
Start creating your positive coincidences today don't
waste another minute. Visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
"Karim, I just wanted to let you know how much
I enjoy your Creating Power program.
I listen to your cds and do the exercises everyday.
In recent weeks I have seen myself grow more confident
and my attitude and outlook on life has improved dramatically.
When I started your program I was looking for a new job.
I secured a great position with a really good company last month.
I have also been going out more and am making progress
in meeting the right person, that's all I'll say about
that area but I will keep you posted. I know
I'll make the right choices thanks to your Creating Power course.
I see things I never used to see before.
I believe in myself and no longer doubt my every step.
I know there are better days ahead. Thank you so much Karim."
-Anna Timmins, Texas USA
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
You too can begin improving your life.
Yes you can create the coincidences to achieve success,
happiness and much more.
Take control of your thoughts and you change your life.
Start today - don't waste another moment creating the
life you don't want. Remember - this is it.
This is the only life you have. Use your incredible
powers to make the most of it. Visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/mwainc.htm
Sincerely,
Karim Hajee
Creating Power
PS: Remember if you don't do anything, if you don't
change the way your mind works and direct your subconscious mind
to create the life you want everything stays the same
nothing changes. This is your life! Make the most of it.
Begin working with the power of your mind and subconscious mind
to create the life you want. Visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm

**************************************************

Plug In The Winning Mindset, Eliminate Fear And Anxiety,
And Tap Into Your Endless Flow Of Spiritual
Abundance In Just Minutes.
Finally, there's a sure-fire way to achieve your goals,
overcome difficulties and start living the life you want.
It's based on a combination of established,
time tested results and the latest study of the mind.
Free 30-day trial: visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/pobcpcinc.htm

****************************************************
Follow Me On Twitter.
I'm sending positive messages and positive vibes through
twitter to help you stay motivated, focused and attract
great things into your life - so follow me on twitter and
get your positive and motivating tweets
Click Here To Follow Me On Twitter

Monday, January 3, 2011

AGILE

Happy New Year and let's make 2011 your best year ever.
In this special New Year's edition I'll show you how to
fulfill your resolutions, so you enjoy the success you want this year and every year.
I know a lot of people make resolutions at the start of every year.
Sadly, most never fulfill them.
They somehow convince themselves to give up or get distracted.
They push their goals to the sidelines and lose the desire to achieve them.
Why?
Because you focus on the wrong things.
And in the process you direct your mind and subconscious mind to create
exactly what you don't want.
Now I'm going to show you how to change that.
When you create your resolution or goal, think about why this goal or
resolution is important to you.
If you want to lose weight; think about why you want to lose weight.
The answer might be to look good or be healthier.
That answer is your motivating factor... its what you really want.
Losing weight merely helps you accomplish that goal.
Then start thinking of what else could you do to accomplish that goal
What else could you do to look great or be healthier?
Then start taking steps to accomplish that.
Now the important part
Regularly think about your goal and why you want to achieve it.
Feed your mind and subconscious mind positive messages about
achieving your goals.
When negative thoughts creep in, remove them.
When you have doubts, replace those doubts with positive
message and how you can achieve your goal.
When you're about to give up, think of why that goal is
important and tell yourself that you can achieve your goals.
When you have your mind and subconscious mind focused on
achieving your goal you will succeed.
The key is to regularly give them the direction and
proper instructions so that you do succeed. Start today - visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
Make this your best year ever.
Get your mind focused on achieving your goals.
Give yourself a fresh start and a new way to build the life you want.
If you experienced setbacks, now is the time to turn things around.
Don't let the negative voice tell you that you can't succeed.
You can accomplish anything you want.
You are a powerful human being and you have amazing abilities.
Your power is in your subconscious mind.
Give it the right instructions and you'll succeed. Visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
"Karim, I've been working with your course for
nearly a year and I have been really impressed with
the way things have turned out. By working with your
program I was able to shed all those negative thoughts and
I started to believe in myself. I accomplished the goals I set out to achieve
and it all happened very smoothly. You kept
telling me to trust the process and I did. I know this
system works and I continue to use it everyday. Yes, I get
some negative thoughts but I know how to deal with them and
I know how to get stronger. I thought I would write to wish you
and your family a wonderful holiday season and all the best for the new year.
You really changed my life and I am much happier today.
I haven't felt this excited about life for a long time.
Thank you Karim."
Marie Gibson, San Diego, USA
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
Yes you can have the same success as Marie.
Yes you can achieve your goals.
Yes you can enjoy your life.
Yes you can have the best year ever.
Get rid of the doubts and negative chatter that says you can't.
You can achieve your goals.
Feed your mind and subconscious mind positive encouragement.
Direct your subconscious to create what you want.
Focus on your goals and think of how and why you can achieve them.
Don't push them to the sidelines... make this your best year ever.
You are a powerful human being with tremendous power.
Work with that power, direct your subconscious mind to
create the life you want. Start today.
Make this your best year ever - visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm
Wishing you a happy and prosperous New Year...
Sincerely,
Karim Hajee
Creating Power
PS: Remember if you don't do anything - if you don't change the way your mind
works and direct your subconscious mind to create the
life you want - everything stays the same - nothing changes. This
is your life - make the most of it - begin working with the power
of your mind and subconscious mind to create the life you want. Visit:
http://www.creatingpower.com/course.htm



************************************
Get more done in less time...
Make this the year you put and end to procrastinating
Manifest Wealth and Abundance
Eliminate Fear and Anxiety
Increase your confidence.
Put an end to depression and no longer be stuck in a rut
Re-direct your mind and subconscious mind quickly and easily.
No homework.
No Exercises.
Just hit the play button and let the changes take place.
http://www.cpaffirmations.com